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  • Renaissance organ at Soenderborg Castle

    29 août 2010, 10h59m

    Todo el mundo en general by the Spanish organist Francisco Correa de Arauxo, recorded at the renaissance organ at the Castle of Sonderborg, Denmark.



    Todo el mundo en general is included on the CD El Arte de Tañer by Via artis Konsort member Poul Udbye Pock-Steen. The CD is released on PARLA son- [parla09001]
  • PAVANA CON SU GLOSA

    16 déc. 2009, 10h47m

    Pavana con su glosa
    Cabezón’s famous pavanne that probably isn’t a pavanne and maybe not even by Cabezón.

    This catchy dance piece with variations originates from a music book published in 1577 by the Spanish organist Luis Venegas de Henestrosa. The piece is attributed to “Antonio”, and this, sort of insider information, has been interpreted by music researchers throughout the years as a reference to the contemporary Spanish organist Antonio de Cabezón. To what degree this is true has already been discussed a lot of times, but it’s probable that Antonio de Cabezón had a greater name than Henestrosa himself at that time, not least in those circles where the potential buyers of the music book were to be found.
    “Antonio” may therefore have worked as a musical teaser for the publication.
    Read the whole story

    Album notes for El Arte de Tañer (parla09001)
  • Salinas, de Encina and me - Spanish renaissance recording

    9 oct. 2009, 14h25m

    The dull sound from the belfry scarcely reaches the interior of the Cathedral. The strokes sound rather unreal.
    I notice that this time just one stroke was heard, consequently there’s just half an hour left before the guardian will return and let me out into the noisy real world of Salamanca.
    What am I doing here, alone in the old romance cathedral? Or almost alone. The earthly remains of several great Spanish musicians lie buried here underneath the stone floor where I’m sitting; Francisco Salinas, Juan del Encina and several others I do not know the names of.

    Read the full story: http://www.viaartis.info/lang/en/archives/750
  • Early World Music - come join the network

    7 juin 2009, 19h23m

    I've recently created a new Early World Music network at:
    - - - - - - - - www.music-liste.ning.com - - - - - - - -
    The main idea behind these pages is to share and promote a part of a musical practice which has been around since the dawn of creativity: The interchange of musical cultures, often called world music.
    The prefix “early” refers to the modal musical traditions which were in use in European art music before the modern era, and are still being practiced, although nowadays to a lesser extent, in non-western cultures and in folk music.
    So Early World Music can be defined as modal music combining western and non-western art music with popular music from around the world.

    The Early World Music pages are meant for musicians and music lovers alike. Please visit the Early World Music pages and join the network.

    Thank you
    Poul Udbye Pock-Steen
    Via Artis Konsort
  • Via Artis Konsort - folk, early music, world, Spanish, Scandinavian, acoustic, modal

    7 jan. 2009, 20h57m

    VIA ARTIS KONSORT is an international ensemble with musical focus aimed at the undiscovered treasures from the late Medieval to early Classic period.
    Via Artis Konsort explores the form and substance of the early music with a special emphasis on timeless concepts such as sonority, improvisation and pulse.
    Free download: Todo el mundo

    The ensemble is formed by skilled musicians from Denmark, Spain and Poland. The ensemble leans primarily on its own investigation. which centers on the ancient skills of improvisation and embellishment.
    
The ensemble was founded in 2004 and has offered more than 200 concerts since then.
    Full length streamable: Du livsens bröd

    The instruments played by the ensemble are: Mezzosoprano, soprano, harp, viola da gamba, portative, historical keyboards, pipes and tabor, persian and arab ney, santour and an ample range of percussion.
    Full length streamable: Tan buen ganadico

    The ensemble recorded its first album Via Stellae in february 2008 on the independent label PARLA

    Official website: www.viaartis.info
  • Via Artis Konsort

    3 jan. 2009, 15h36m

    Folk music, Early music, world music, Scandinavian, Spanish, acoustic, modal

    Via Artis Konsort is a classical music ensemble, performing early music with inspiration from world - and folk music.
    The ensemble released the CD Via Stellae february 2008.
    We would like you to listen to a few samples we've uploaded to Last.fm.
    Todo el mundo is an interesting rhythmic song in a sort of early baroque style by the Spanish composer Francisco Correa de Arauxo. The song features a nice viola da gamba solo.
    Tan buen ganadico by Juan del Encina is a lively renaissance piece in a folkloric style.
    Du livsens bröd is a very old Swedish psalm, including an intermezzo arranged with inspiration from the world-music scene.

    Feel free to TAG the music in your language.
    We would LOVE feedback on the music!

    Via Artis Konsort
    Official website: www.viaartis.info
  • On non-traditional folk and world music instruments

    12 déc. 2008, 18h42m

    We would like to introduce you to three instruments used not very often in folk and world music. Nevertheless, they used to be fairly common some 500 years ago.
    The portative organ, playing together with mezzosoprano, viol, harp, pipe and tabor in: Tan buen ganadico by Juan del Encina. A lively renaissance piece in a folkloric style.
    The viol, playing together with soprano, harp, portative organ and cántara in: Du livsens bröd. A very old Swedish psalm, including an intermezzo arranged with inspiration from the world-music scene.
    The pipe and tabor, playing together with the harp in: Ofertorio. A Spanish modal folk tune from the province of Salamanca. The tune is played on a medieval pipe and tabor, tuned in the Castilian folk scale.

    We would LOVE feedback on the music!

    Via Artis Konsort
    Official website: www.viaartis.info
  • Everybody

    9 déc. 2008, 23h09m

    A story from real cyber life:
    The other day I received a message from a Japanese musician. He had just downloaded Todo el mundo from our CD Via Stellae, and had started ‘power playing’ the song on his media player.
    As Last.fm gives you the possibility to register your listeners, I could actually follow the process and see that the piece was played on his computer no less than 119 times in a row. Incredible!
    Next day our ensemble was presented with a gift from my Japanese friend with the mysterious sounding alias Duplex-Ache: a beautiful piece of electronic music inspired in the ‘power listening’ of 'Todo el mundo'. The piece was of course named 'Everybody'.

    Take a minute and listen, first to Todo el mundo, then to Everybody.

    Social internet portals like MySpace, Facebook and Last.fm are indeed time robbers. They do hold us in captivity in front of the screen. They sure prevents us from getting up and getting in contact with real life and real people. But who cares? If you can connect with people from the other side of the globe on a serious level, although these are people you’ll actually never meet, why bother? And, if a 400 hundred year old Spanish song can be the inspiration for a modern Japanese piece of electronic music, what more do we need? It might be a cliché, but music can connect through time and space, including cyberspace. This is clearly an example.
  • In chorus: Todo el mundo en general

    17 nov. 2008, 20h24m

    Todo el mundo en general was once a very popular religious song with lyrics by the Andalusian poet Miguel Cid. The popularity it gained in its time was tremendous, in fact today we wouldn't hesitate to classify it as a "hit". But like many other popular songs throughout history, Todo el mundo had its palmy days, after which it disappeared into the darkness of oblivion. The fact that we today still have knowledge of the song, is due especially to the Spanish baroque composer Francisco Correa de Arauxo (1), who later wrote a piece for organ with variations, based on the popular melody.
    We decided to trace Todo el mundo back to it's original form as a song, while at the same time preserving Arauxo's variations. You can listen to the result here, Todo el mundo, while reading the fascinating story about el canto llano de la Inmaculada: Todo el mundo en general

    The popular music at the service of the Church
    It wasn't only in the Protestant part of Europe that the Church made use of popular music to support reforms and to advocate for religious doctrines. In beginning of the 17th century the Franciscan order in Spain worked determinedly on convincing the Holy See to raise the doctrine of "The Immaculate Conception", La Inmaculada Concepción, to the level of Catholic dogma. Those efforts included both theological discussions, political lobbyism and social and popular mobilization, and in that latter context a simple religious song by the Sevilian composer and priest Bernardo del Toro (1570-1643) composed at Christmas time 1614 came to play a mayor role.
    It is told that the composer gave a small party in relation with the traditional Christmas nativity scene and that the visitors, including the friend and poet Miguel Cid, arrived at the party with 'songs and verses'. In this festive gathering the song dedicated to the “Immaculate Virgin" arose:
    Let everyone lift up their voice
    in chorus - chosen Queen -
    that You are conceived
    without original sin
    without original sin

    Everyone - in chorus
    On January 23rd, in the year 1615, the song Todo el mundo was published as printed sheets and distributed all over the town of Seville. Already on 2nd February the same year the song was sung by the choir of the Cathedral and during the following months the melody and lyrics were taught to children as well as to adults, in schools and churches everywhere in Seville. On July 29th a large crowd marched through the streets of Seville, demanding the Holy See to recognize the teachings of "The Immaculate Conception" as a papal dogma. This public manifestation is perpetuated in a painting by the Spanish painter Juan de las Roelas (Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura). In the painting one can observe that the children in the gathering crowd carry the printed sheets of the song in their hands.
    In Seville the Todo el mundo - fever culminated around Christmas time 1616. By that time the song was sung in all the churches of the town. On December 8th a grand religious feast was held in the Cathedral with several dance and music performances. At the end of the celebration all the participants fell on their knees, facing the image of the Holy Virgin, and sang as in one united voice the famous chorus that everybody in Seville now knew by heart: "Todo el mundo a general". (2)

    Variations on Todo el mundo
    In 1625 the Spanish baroque-composer Francisco Correa de Arauxo published a treatise on organ playing, in which one of the last pieces, Tres glosas sobre el canto llano de la Inmaculada, is a set of variations on the famous tune by Bernardo del Toro and Miguel Cid. The piece is remarkable in many ways. First Arauxo presents the original song in the shape of a chorus followed by a verse, with the principal voice placed in the tenor. Then the chorus is presented again, this time with the principal voice held by the soprano. Subsequently the variations rise in speed and level of difficulty. The variations run twice over the verse part while the third and last time, the quickest, over the chorus.

    Spanish baroque pulse
    Rhythmically viewed the song is composed on a basis of constant and regular alternations between duple and triple metre, that is between 6/8 and 3/4. This rhythmical principle of constant metre change had already been practiced for a long time in European popular music (Ex. the German psalm "Min største hjertens glæde" 1550, recorded by Via Artis Konsort), but in Spain this particular rhythmical mould was used at the beginning of the 17th century with an often more pronounced and even dance like character, as it can be heard in the popular Spanish genre La Jácara.

    Todo el mundo, revisited
    Arauxo's melody is very similar to the original composed by Bernardo del Toro (3), thus we decided that we would not offend against any of the composers' posthumous reputation by re-arranging the piece as a song using the original text, while at the same time keeping Arauxo's variations.
    Arauxo's variations run over the exact length of both choruses and verses, but in the 2nd variation a line is missing. In the original song (as in the 1st variation) the last line of the verse is repeated where the lyrics read “sin pecado original', but in the 2nd variation this repetition is absent. Unfortunately it's impossible to know whether the missing line is due to a mistake in the publishing process, or whether Arauxo consciously omitted the repetition of the last line, but for the sake of wholeness we decided to add the missing line - with the lack of respect for original compositions that practitioners of early music must show from time to time, just as the musicians of the baroque era themselves so fully demonstrated. The variations on the second last line in this 2nd variation consequently do not originate from Arauxo's hand.

    You can listen to the result of the reconstruction here: Todo el mundo
    First the chorus is sung, and right after that, the verse called copla.
    Then the chorus is played by the bass viol, followed by the 1st variation on the verse, played by the portative organ.
    Then follows the 2nd variation on the verse, played by the bas viol, and finally the song ends with the 3rd variation on the chorus, played by the portative organ with added vocal on the last part.

    Listen to the piece and note how Arauxo's variations elegantly play with the constant change between duple and triple metre.

    ************

    We welcome comments on this article :)


    Notes:
    (1) Spanish organist and composer, possibly of Portuguese descent. Organist at the Church of S. Salvador in Seville from 1599 until 1636, then at Jaén Cathedral until 1640, finally at Segovia Cathedral until his death. His Libro de tientos y discursos de música practica, y theorica de organo, intitulado Facultad organica (Alcald, 1626) contains 62 tientos and seven other pieces, all for organ, introduced by a theoretical treatise and arranged in order of increasing difficulty, in a colorful baroque style, with bold dissonances and wayward figurations.

    (2) In Spain The Feast of the Immaculate Conception still is celebrated on the 8th of December

    (3) Bernardo del Toro's song is a so-called canto llano, i.e. a song in a modal church tonality, Arauxo adds to the song an early baroque harmonization. The rhythmical alternation between two- and tripartite metre originates from the original tune by Bernardo del Toro.

    Sources: Alfonso de Vicente: Música, propaganda y reforma religiosa en los siglos XVI y XVII: cánticos para la "gente del vulgo" (1520-1620), Conservatorio Profesional de Música de Amaniel (Madrid), Studia Aurea 1 (2007)

    Internet sources:
    http://www.hoasm.org/IVL/Correa.html
    http://www.galeon.com/juliodominguez/2001/cmc.htm
  • In chorus: Todo el mundo en general

    17 nov. 2008, 19h51m

    Todo el mundo en general was once a very popular religious song with lyrics by the Andalusian poet Miguel Cid. The popularity it gained in its time was tremendous, in fact today we wouldn't hesitate to classify it as a "hit". But like many other popular songs throughout history, Todo el mundo had its palmy days, after which it disappeared into the darkness of oblivion. The fact that we today still have knowledge of the song, is due especially to the Spanish baroque composer Francisco Correa de Arauxo (1), who later wrote a piece for organ with variations, based on the popular melody.
    We decided to trace Todo el mundo back to it's original form as a song, while at the same time preserving Arauxo's variations. You can listen to the result here, Todo el mundo, while reading the fascinating story about el canto llano de la Inmaculada: Todo el mundo en general

    The popular music at the service of the Church
    It wasn't only in the Protestant part of Europe that the Church made use of popular music to support reforms and to advocate for religious doctrines. In beginning of the 17th century the Franciscan order in Spain worked determinedly on convincing the Holy See to raise the doctrine of "The Immaculate Conception", La Inmaculada Concepción, to the level of Catholic dogma. Those efforts included both theological discussions, political lobbyism and social and popular mobilization, and in that latter context a simple religious song by the Sevilian composer and priest Bernardo del Toro (1570-1643) composed at Christmas time 1614 came to play a mayor role.
    It is told that the composer gave a small party in relation with the traditional Christmas nativity scene and that the visitors, including the friend and poet Miguel Cid, arrived at the party with 'songs and verses'. In this festive gathering the song dedicated to the “Immaculate Virgin" arose:
    Let everyone lift up their voice
    in chorus - chosen Queen -
    that You are conceived
    without original sin
    without original sin

    Everyone - in chorus
    On January 23rd, in the year 1615, the song Todo el mundo was published as printed sheets and distributed all over the town of Seville. Already on 2nd February the same year the song was sung by the choir of the Cathedral and during the following months the melody and lyrics were taught to children as well as to adults, in schools and churches everywhere in Seville. On July 29th a large crowd marched through the streets of Seville, demanding the Holy See to recognize the teachings of "The Immaculate Conception" as a papal dogma. This public manifestation is perpetuated in a painting by the Spanish painter Juan de las Roelas (Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura). In the painting one can observe that the children in the gathering crowd carry the printed sheets of the song in their hands.
    In Seville the Todo el mundo - fever culminated around Christmas time 1616. By that time the song was sung in all the churches of the town. On December 8th a grand religious feast was held in the Cathedral with several dance and music performances. At the end of the celebration all the participants fell on their knees, facing the image of the Holy Virgin, and sang as in one united voice the famous chorus that everybody in Seville now knew by heart: "Todo el mundo a general". (2)

    Variations on Todo el mundo
    In 1625 the Spanish baroque-composer Francisco Correa de Arauxo published a treatise on organ playing, in which one of the last pieces, Tres glosas sobre el canto llano de la Inmaculada, is a set of variations on the famous tune by Bernardo del Toro and Miguel Cid. The piece is remarkable in many ways. First Arauxo presents the original song in the shape of a chorus followed by a verse, with the principal voice placed in the tenor. Then the chorus is presented again, this time with the principal voice held by the soprano. Subsequently the variations rise in speed and level of difficulty. The variations run twice over the verse part while the third and last time, the quickest, over the chorus.

    Spanish baroque pulse
    Rhythmically viewed the song is composed on a basis of constant and regular alternations between duple and triple metre, that is between 6/8 and 3/4. This rhythmical principle of constant metre change had already been practiced for a long time in European popular music (Ex. the German psalm "Min største hjertens glæde" 1550, recorded by Via Artis Konsort), but in Spain this particular rhythmical mould was used at the beginning of the 17th century with an often more pronounced and even dance like character, as it can be heard in the popular Spanish genre La Jácara.

    Todo el mundo, revisited
    Arauxo's melody is very similar to the original composed by Bernardo del Toro (3), thus we decided that we would not offend against any of the composers' posthumous reputation by re-arranging the piece as a song using the original text, while at the same time keeping Arauxo's variations.
    Arauxo's variations run over the exact length of both choruses and verses, but in the 2nd variation a line is missing. In the original song (as in the 1st variation) the last line of the verse is repeated where the lyrics read “sin pecado original', but in the 2nd variation this repetition is absent. Unfortunately it's impossible to know whether the missing line is due to a mistake in the publishing process, or whether Arauxo consciously omitted the repetition of the last line, but for the sake of wholeness we decided to add the missing line - with the lack of respect for original compositions that practitioners of early music must show from time to time, just as the musicians of the baroque era themselves so fully demonstrated. The variations on the second last line in this 2nd variation consequently do not originate from Arauxo's hand.

    You can listen to the result of the reconstruction here: Todo el mundo
    First the chorus is sung, and right after that, the verse called copla.
    Then the chorus is played by the bass viol, followed by the 1st variation on the verse, played by the portative organ.
    Then follows the 2nd variation on the verse, played by the bas viol, and finally the song ends with the 3rd variation on the chorus, played by the portative organ with added vocal on the last part.

    Listen to the piece and note how Arauxo's variations elegantly play with the constant change between duple and triple metre.

    ************

    We welcome comments on this article :)


    Notes:
    (1) Spanish organist and composer, possibly of Portuguese descent. Organist at the Church of S. Salvador in Seville from 1599 until 1636, then at Jaén Cathedral until 1640, finally at Segovia Cathedral until his death. His Libro de tientos y discursos de música practica, y theorica de organo, intitulado Facultad organica (Alcald, 1626) contains 62 tientos and seven other pieces, all for organ, introduced by a theoretical treatise and arranged in order of increasing difficulty, in a colorful baroque style, with bold dissonances and wayward figurations.

    (2) In Spain The Feast of the Immaculate Conception still is celebrated on the 8th of December

    (3) Bernardo del Toro's song is a so-called canto llano, i.e. a song in a modal church tonality, Arauxo adds to the song an early baroque harmonization. The rhythmical alternation between two- and tripartite metre originates from the original tune by Bernardo del Toro.

    Sources: Alfonso de Vicente: Música, propaganda y reforma religiosa en los siglos XVI y XVII: cánticos para la "gente del vulgo" (1520-1620), Conservatorio Profesional de Música de Amaniel (Madrid), Studia Aurea 1 (2007)

    Internet sources:
    http://www.hoasm.org/IVL/Correa.html
    http://www.galeon.com/juliodominguez/2001/cmc.htm