Ska combined elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. It is characterized by a walking bass line, accented guitar or piano rhythms on the offbeat. In the early 1960s, ska was the dominant musical genre of Jamaica, and it was also popular with British mods. Music historians typically divide the history of ska into three periods: the original Jamaican ska scene of the 1960s, the 2 Tone ska revival that started in England in the late 1970s, and the third wave ska movement, which started in the 1980s.
Primarily an extension of alternative/independent rock, Sadcore is slow, fragile and gut-wrenching music made by and for the depressed. Themes of heartbreak, loss, and misery dominate the lyrics, and the music itself is resolutely downbeat — the acoustic guitars that once defined ’70s-era singer/songwriters certainly resurface here, but much of the music is far more dissonant and intense, conjuring much darker atmospheres and textures.
Western music is the latter half of what during the 1930s and ’40s came to be called ‘country and western music.’ Cowboy songs, though, are as old as the cowboy tradition—or older, as some date back centuries. At their most basic level they’re simply folksongs, with melodies and lyrics geared toward (and in some cases rewritten to reflect) distinctly western situations and myths—the harsh reality of long, dusty cattle drives; the melancholy of a dying gunfighter.
Minimalist music is an originally American genre of experimental or Downtown music named in the 1960s. It is based on the musical language and instrumentation of three very diffierent types: African percussion, Indonesian Gamelan and Western tonality.
During 1945, after the Second World War, there was an influx of Californian (predominantly white) jazz musicians to New York. Once there, these musicians mixed with the mostly black bebop musicians, but were also strongly influenced by the “smooth” sound of saxophonist Lester Young. The style that emerged became known as “cool jazz”, which avoided the aggressive tempos and harmonic abstraction of bebop. Cool jazz is often differentiated from other jazz idioms by its emphasis on the intellectual aspects of the music. Such aspects would include intricate arrangements, innovative forms, and through composed feel (even through improvised sections.)
Turntablism is the art of manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and a DJ mixer. The word ‘turntablist’ was coined in 1995 by DJ Babu to describe the difference between a DJ who just plays records, and one who performs by touching and moving the records, stylus and mixer to manipulate sound. The new term co-occurred with a resurgence of the art of hip hop style DJing in the nineties.
Space rock is a sub-genre of rock music; the term originally referred to a group of early mostly British 1970s progressive rock and psychedelic bands, it is characterized by slow, lengthy instrumental passages dominated by synthesizers, experimental guitar work and science fiction lyrical themes, though it was later re-purposed to refer to a series of late 1980s British alternative rock bands that drew from earlier influences to create a more melodic but still ambient form of pop music.
Pop music that blends unusual or contrasting genres and musical styles together, creating an amalgam that differs radically from the usual pop or bring foreign elements to the genre. It can also mean music that has typical pop elements in its melodies and lyrics that remains ‘obscure’ to the mainstream.
Symphonic rock is a subgenre of rock music, and more specifically, progressive rock. Since early in progressive rock’s history, the term has been used sometimes to distinguish more classically influenced progressive rock from the more psychedelic and experimental offerings.
Since around the mid-1980s, electronic dance music has enjoyed popularity in many nightclubs, and, as of 2006, is the predominant type of music played in discothèques as well as the rave scene.
As such, the related term club music, while broadly referring to whatever music genres are currently in vogue and associated with nightclubs, has, for some, become synonymous with all electronic dance music, or just those genres (or some subset thereof) that are typically played at mainstream discothèques.
It is sometimes used more broadly to encompass non-electronic music played at such venues, or electronic music that is not normally played at clubs but that shares attributes with music that is.